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List of definitions
  • aid intensity
    the amount of aid divided by the present value of the eligible costs, expressed as a percentage
    aid scheme
    any act on the basis of which, without further implementing measures being required, individual aid awards may be made to undertakings defined within the act in a general and abstract manner and any act on the basis of which aid which is not linked to a specific project may be granted to one or several undertakings for an indefinite period of time and/or for an indefinite amount

    the legal entity, business company with no legal personality, other entity with no legal personality, private individual or any group of persons requesting public funding by submitting a project proposal

    application guidelines
    part of the call for proposals; the document which complements the Call Notice by providing further explanatory instructions and technical information for application

    the analytical examination of the actual results, the consistency of available resources and original goals, the socio-economic use of the results and the impacts of utilisation with the aim of ensuring the effective utilisation of public funds. Assessment can focus on strategies, institutions, organisations and programmes and can take the following forms:

    • ex-ante assessment
    • mid-term assessment
    • ex-post assessment
    • ongoing assessment


    assessment against admission criteria
    the preliminary assessment of project proposals against the criteria specified in detail in the call for proposals (not to be confused with the assessment of formal compliance and professional content; a positive assessment against the admission criteria does not mean that the project proposal is selected for funding)
    assessment of project proposals
    the qualitative assessment of project proposals submitted to the call against the assessment criteria which results in a detailed professional opinion on the proposal
    assisted areas

    areas designated in an approved regional aid map for the period 1 July 2014 and 31 December 2020 in application of Articles 107(3)(a) and (c) of the Treaty

    associated enterprise

    a business company not completely consolidated, in which the parent company (see there) or a consolidated subsidiary (see there) thereof has a substantial share (as defined in an Act) and exercises considerable influence (as defined in an Act) over the business and financial policy of the business company

    audit trail
    the description of the aid planning, financial management and control system presented as a text, spreadsheet or flowchart which includes in particular the levels of responsibility and information, relationships, management and control processes, and the documents supporting such control mechanisms enabling monitoring and ex-post audit during the utilisation of the funds
    autonomous enterprise

    any enterprise which is not classified as a partner enterprise or as a linked enterprise

  • benchmarking

    an analysis and planning method: the qualitative and quantitative comparison of a procedure with another procedure which qualifies as the best in a similar field. In the field of RDI it enables the analysis of key processes, the elimination of mistakes and the improvement of performance for example through best practices

    reference: Investment in the future– National Research and Development and Innovation Strategy (2013–2020)

    the applicant receiving public funding under a funding agreement or any other natural or legal person or entity with no legal personality entitled to the funding on the basis of a commitment
    budgetary research centre
    a budgetary organ pursuing research and development activities as its basic or core activity or in relation to it
  • call (for proposals)
    document containing all information necessary for applicants to request funding for their project proposals from various financial resources in a competitive system
    call notice
    part of the call for proposals; the document which contains the conditions of application
    category of aid
    the classification of eligible activities under the call which may entail a change in certain rules applicable to the aid (such as the aid/own funds ratio of eligible costs for a given activity).
    Typical categories of aid applied in research and development calls include:
    • aid for research and development projects
    • investment aid for research infrastructures
    • de minimis aid

    reference: Commission Regulation (EU) No 651/2014

    a cooperative arrangement based on the shared work of participants (consortium partners), as regulated in an agreement under civil law, aimed at engaging in a joint RDI activity or implementing a joint RDI project
    corporate social responsibility (csr)

    a business philosophy and behaviour according to which the companies – beyond complying with their legal obligations – consider the interests of society by having regard to effect of their activities on their business partners, suppliers, employees, shareholders and also the environment

  • decision-maker
    person or body having decision-making powers over the financial resources based on a law
    the process of adopting the decision on granting or rejecting the requested aid
    disadvantaged worker
    pursuant to the relevant EU regulation, any person who:
    • has not been in regular paid employment for the previous 6 months; or
    •  is between 15 and 24 years of age; or
    • has not attained an upper secondary educational or vocational qualification (International Standard Classification of Education 3) or is within two years after completing full-time education and who has not previously obtained his or her first regular paid employment; or 
    • is over the age of 50 years; or 
    • lives as a single adult with one or more dependents; or 
    • works in a sector or profession in a Member State where the gender imbalance is at least 25% higher than the average gender imbalance across all economic sectors in
    • that Member State, and belongs to that underrepresented gender group; or 
    •  is a member of an ethnic minority within a Member State and who requires development of his or her linguistic, vocational training or work experience profile to enhance prospects of gaining access to stable employment.
      See also: severely disadvantaged worker
    discovery research
    see: fundamental research
    due signature
    the signature of the person(s) entitled to lawfully represent a company, as evidenced by the data of the companies register, written in representation of the company (in accordance with the specimen signature drafted by a notary public or a signature template drafted by an attorney-at-law) under the pre-written, pre-typed, pre-stamped or printed company name
  • economic entity
    pursuant to the Accounting Act: undertakings government agencies (see there), other organisations (see there), the National Bank of Hungary, and healthcare, social and educational institutions created by them or by natural persons.

    european institute of innovation & technology (eit)

    Budapest-based independent EU body; its aim is to enhance the innovation capacity of the EU and the member states to promote economic growth, job creation and addressing societal challenges


    european regional development fund (erdf)

    a tool for correcting imbalances between the regions of the European Union, focusing its investments on addressing the economic, environmental and social problems of urban areas (spending at least 5% of its resources on urban development) and on supporting regions that are naturally disadvantaged from a geographical viewpoint


    european research area (era)
    it is the EU’s declared objective in the field of research to achieve “a unified research area open to the world, based on the Internal Market, in which researchers, scientific knowledge and technology circulate freely and through which the Union and its Member States strengthen their scientific and technological bases, their competitiveness and their capacity to collectively address grand challenges”
    Its priority areas:
    • more efficient national research systems
    • optimal cooperation and competition between nations (including the joint tackling of socio-economic challenges and the development of research infrastructures)
    • open labour market for researchers
    • the promotion of gender equality in research
    • optimisation of the flow of, access to and utilisation of scientific knowledge
    european social fund (esa)

    a main instrument of the European Union which invests in human capacity through various actions and projects such as the development of educational systems, the promotion of equal opportunities in the labour market and the facilitation of entrepreneurship


    evaluation plan

    a document preparing the evaluation process (see there) containing at least the following minimum elements: the objectives of the aid scheme to be evaluated, the evaluation questions, the result indicators, the envisaged methodology to conduct the evaluation, the data collection requirements, the proposed timing of the evaluation including the date of submission of the final evaluation report, the description of the independent body conducting the evaluation or the criteria that will be used for its selection and the modalities for ensuring the publicity of the evaluation

    ex-ante assessment
    the examination of the efficiency of RDI programmes and the adequacy of instruments recommended for reaching the objectives based on situation analysis
    see also: assessment
    ex-ante assessment

    the examination of the efficiency of RDI programmes and the adequacy of instruments recommended for reaching the objectives based on situation analysis
    see also: assessment

    ex-post assessment
    the examination following the implementation and completion of the RDI programme covering the regularity of the utilisation of funds, the successfulness and efficiency of the RDI programme and its implementation, the analysis of the social, economic and scientific impacts of the RDI programme and whether the objectives of the RDI programme have been achieved
    see also: assessment
    experimental development
    acquiring, combining, shaping and using existing scientific, technological, business and other relevant knowledge and skills with the aim of developing new or improved products, processes or services.
    This may also include, for example:
    • activities aiming at the conceptual definition, planning and documentation of new products, processes or services;
    • prototyping, demonstrating of new or improved products, processes or services;
    • piloting, testing and validation of such products in environments representative of real life operating conditions where the primary objective is to make further technical improvements on products, processes or services that are not substantially set
    • the development of a commercially usable prototype or pilot which is necessarily the final commercial product and which is too expensive to produce for it to be used only for demonstration and validation purposes

    Experimental development does not include:
    routine or periodic changes made to existing products, production lines, manufacturing processes, services and other operations in progress, even if those changes may represent improvements

  • fundamental research

    experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundations of phenomena and observable facts, without any direct commercial application or use in view
    synonym: discovery research, basic research

    reference: Commission Regulation (EU) No 651/2014

  • government agency

    organizations belonging to the central and local government subsystem of public finances

    reference:  Act C of 2000 on accounting

  • highly qualified personnel

    staff having a tertiary education degree and at least 5 years of relevant professional experience which may also include doctoral training

  • impact indicator
    an indicator referring to the long-term consequences of the project which may also depend on extra-project factors (such as job creation, increased profit, citation index of scientific results, utilisation in other procedures)
    independent undertaking

    a business company in which the undertaking does not exercise considerable influence, and which is not classified as a subsidiary, joint undertaking or associated enterprise

    reference: Act C of 2000 on accounting

    statistical values determined by the announcer of the RDI programme in the call for proposals to express the results or completion in quantitative (pcs, person, m2, tonnes, HUF, % etc.), qualitative (relating to category, level, target group, function, competency, place, topic etc.) or temporal (permanent, temporary, annual) terms. Indicator types:
    • input indicators
    • output indicators
    • result and impact indicators
    individual aid

    aid awarded to individual beneficiaries on the basis of an aid scheme or ad hoc aid (i.e. aid not awarded on the basis of an aid scheme)

    reference: Commission Regulation (EU) No 651/2014

    industrial research

    the planned research or critical investigation aimed at the acquisition of new knowledge and skills for developing new products, processes or services or for bringing about a significant improvement in existing products, processes or services
    see also: experimental development; research and development

    reference: Commission Regulation (EU) No 651/2014

    scientific, technical, organisational, economic and commercial operations performed to improve the efficiency and profitability of economic activities and exert beneficial social and environmental impacts resulting in the creation of a new or significantly modified product, procedure, service or in the adoption or market entry of a new or significantly modified procedure or technology, including variations which can only be considered as a novelty in a given sector or organisation
    innovation action
    An action primarily consisting of activities directly aiming at producing plans and arrangements or designs for new, altered or improved products, processes or services. For this purpose they may include prototyping, testing, demonstrating, piloting, large-scale product validation and market replication.
    innovation and networks executive agency (inea)
    The Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA) is the successor organisation of the Trans-European Transport Network Executive Agency (TEN-T EA). INEA has officially started its activities on 1 January 2014 in order to implement parts of the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) and the \"Smart green and integrated transport\" and the \"Secure, clean and efficient energy\" Societal challenges of Horizon 2020.
    innovation cluster

    structure or organised group of independent parties (such as innovative start-ups, small, medium and large enterprises, as well as research and knowledge dissemination organisations, non-for-profit organisations and other related economic actors) designed to stimulate innovative activity through promotion, sharing of facilities and exchange of knowledge and expertise and by contributing effectively to knowledge transfer, networking, information dissemination and collaboration among the undertakings and other organisations in the cluster

    innovation ecosystem
    a geographical concentration of entrepreneurs, investors, inventors and educational institutions where research, development, innovation and the related commercial activity is implemented on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation
    innovation voucher

    a funded instrument which enables micro, small and medium enterprises to purchase the knowledge and consultation services required for their current projects so facilitating the knowledge flow (see there) between enterprises as buyers and knowledge centres as suppliers (a scheme first introduced in the Netherlands in 2004 then in Ireland in 2006)

    reference: Investment in the future– National Research and Development and Innovation Strategy (2013–2020)

    innovative enterprise
    pursuant to the law regulating the eligibility criteria, an enterprise:
    • which can prove by means of an independent expert’s assessment report that in the foreseeable future it can develop a product, service or process which is new or which significant improves the state-of-the-art industrial technology but which also runs the risk of technological or industrial failure; or
    • where research and development costs account for at least 10% of the operating costs in at least one year during the three years preceding the provision of the aid
    intangible assets

    assets that do not have a physical or financial embodiment such as patents, licences, know-how or other intellectual property

    intellectual property
    a unique technical solution which can be protected under industrial property law (patent, utility model protection, plant variety protection, design model protection, topography protection) or which falls under copyright protection by course of law, including when – depending on the purposes and opportunities of utilisation – it is more reasonable to keep the solution in secret rather than seeking protection for it
    see also: patent, invention
    a unique technical solution for a new product or process which can be legally protected by patent (see there)
    see also: intellectual property
    the purchase, creation and production of a tangible asset, commissioning of a tangible asset, the activities performed up until the asset is placed into operation (shipping, customs formalities, mediation, foundation work, commissioning, and all activities performed in connection with the acquisition of the asset, such as planning, preparations, execution, soliciting a loan, contracting insurance etc.); any operation for the expansion, conversion, transformation of an asset or to increase the useful life and/or capacity of an asset shall also be included in this category, including all other above-specified associated activities
  • joint research centre (jrc)
    The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.
    joint technology initiatives (jti)
    Public-private partnerships for performing research at European Union level with dedicated structures, used as a strategy of implementing Horizon 2020 to support, in a limited number of cases, initiatives that could not be implemented efficiently, using the other R&D funding mechanisms.
    joint undertaking
    A Joint Undertaking is a legal entity established under the TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union). The term can be used to describe any collaborative structure proposed for the "efficient execution of Union research, technological development and demonstration programmes". Joint Technology Inititiatives (JTI-s) are examplesfor Joint Undertakings.
    joint undertaking

    a business company in which, on the one hand, the parent company (or the consolidated subsidiary of the parent company), and on the other hand, one (or several) other undertaking(s), have the rights defined in an Act on an equal basis, with at least 33 per cent voting rights. A joint undertaking is directed jointly by the owners.

  • key enabling technologies
    A major component of 'Leadership in Enabling and Industrial Technologies' in Horizon 2020 are Key Enabling Technologies (KETs), defined as micro- and nanoelectronics, photonics, nanotechnology, biotechnology, advanced materials and advanced manufacturing systems . These multi-disciplinary, knowledge and capital-intensive technologies cut across many diverse sectors providing the basis for significant competitive advantage for European industry, for stimulating growth and for creating new jobs.
    knowledge and innovation communities (kics)

    new cooperation models developed and tested by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) in relation to how innovation is approached, managed, financed and delivered in Europe


    knowledge flow

    diffusion of the accumulated knowledge in the institutional and corporate network and in the broader economy for the purpose of maximum utilization

  • large enterprise
    a business company which does not fall under the definition of micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs; see there)
    large scale investment project

    an initial investment project or an initial investment project directed at the pursuit of a new economic activity where the present value of eligible expenditure exceeds the HUF equivalent of EUR 50 million, in view of the aggregation rule

    linked enterprises
    pursuant to the relevant EU regulation, enterprises which have any of the following relationships with each other:
    • an enterprise has a majority of the shareholders’ or members’ voting rights in another enterprise; 
    • an enterprise has the right to appoint or remove a majority of the members of the administrative, management or supervisory body of another enterprise; 
    • an enterprise has the right to exercise a dominant influence over another enterprise pursuant to a contract entered into with that enterprise or to a provision in its memorandum or articles of association;
    • an enterprise, which is a shareholder in or member of another enterprise, controls alone, pursuant to an agreement with other shareholders in or members of that enterprise, a majority of shareholders’ or members’ voting rights in that enterprise.
  • marketing innovation

    the application of new marketing methods that significantly change the design, packaging, positioning, advertising or pricing of a product

    reference: OECD OSLO manual


    personal consulting relationship where the mentors – usually persons in managerial capacities – support the professional development of their protégés with their skills, experiences and connections

    micro enterprise
    within the SME category, a micro enterprise is a company whose
    • total staff headcount is less than 10, and
    • annual net sales revenue or balance-sheet total is no more than the HUF equivalent of EUR 2 million

    see also: micro, small and medium enterprises

    micro, small and medium sized enterprises (smes)

    any company whose

    • total staff headcount is less than 250, and
    • annual net sales revenue is no more than the HUF equivalent of EUR 50 million or balance-sheet total is no more than the HUF equivalent of EUR 43 million

    see also: micro enterprise, small enterprise

    mid-term assessment
    assessment performed during the implementation of the RDI programme (usually in the middle of the term) with the aim of analysing the achieved results and establishing whether the objective can be achieved by the end of the programme term
    see also: assessment
    an assessment-related process aimed at the regular examination of the professional and financial progress of specific RDI programmes and projects, serving as a basis for proposing necessary interventions
  • national contact point (ncp)
    A person or organisation under the responsibility of a national administration, providing support and guidance to applicants and beneficiaries in Horizon 2020.
    national innovation system
    the totality of all institutions, businesses, other organisations, resources, rules, conditions and measures within a country which influence the creation, transfer, dissemination and utilisation of new knowledge and technologies
    national research, development and innovation fund (nrdi fund)
    a separated public fund primarily used by the Government to provide public funding for research, development and innovation purposes
    national technology platform

    a strategic community of interests of the R&D and economic sector. Its aim is to boost the professional and business development and enhance the competitiveness of the given area of the national economy

    nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (nuts)

    a geographical nomenclature created by the EUROSTAT subdividing the economic territory of the European Union into regions at three different levels (in Hungary the 19 counties and the capital are at NUTS 3 level which are organised into seven larger planning and statistical NUTS 2 regions)


    non-governmental organisation (ngo)
    pursuant to the relevant law: civil companies; associations registered in Hungary (except for political parties, trade unions and mutual insurance associations) and foundations (except for public foundations and party foundations)
    non-profit research centre
    research centre qualified as a public-benefit organisation under the relevant law
  • objection
    an application for legal remedy submitted to the funding institution by the applicant or – in the case of an effective funding agreement – the beneficiary (link) if the procedure or decision relating to the entire application procedure, the adoption of the award decision, the issuance of the funding documents, the signing of the funding agreement(s) or the disbursement or reclaiming of the public funding is in breach of the law or the Call Notice or the funding agreement
    open access (oa)
    The practice of providing on-line access to scientific information that is free of charge to the reader. In the context of Research and Innovation, open access typically focuses on access to 'scientific information', which refers to two main categories: peer-reviewed scientific research articles (published in academic journals) and scientific research data (data underlying publications and/or raw data).
    open access to publications
    Online access to publications is free of charge for any user. There are two main routes towards open access to publications: self- archiving (also referred to as \"green\" open access) and Open access publishing (also referred to as 'gold' open access). Open access to publications resulting from Horizon 2020 publications is mandatory.
    open lab

    the research infrastructure of a laboratory operating at a public research facility or a large company, and the associated research services, that can be used by anyone (ranging from private individuals through private entrepreneurs to SMEs) on a commercial basis, enabling an optimized access to equipment where new technologies, products and services can be developed

    organisation for economic co-operation and development (oecd)

    an international organisation whose aim is to support the governments of the member states in developing and evaluating the best possible economic and social policies. The organisation has accumulated enormous knowledge and skills since its foundation in 1984 that are shared among the members states through professional directorates (research and development e.g. through the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry).

    organisational innovation

    the implementation of a new organisational method in an undertaking's business practices, workplace organisation or external relations, excluding changes that are based on organisational methods already in use in the undertaking, changes in management strategy, mergers and acquisitions, ceasing to use a process, simple capital replacement or extension, changes resulting purely from changes in factor prices, customisation, localisation, regular, seasonal and other cyclical changes and trading of new or significantly improved products

    other organisation

    for the purposes of the Accounting Act, any organisation other than an undertaking or government agency:

    ·     associations, foundations

    ·     public corporations, public foundations

    ·     housing co-operatives, condominiums

    ·     law firms, patent agencies, bailiff’s offices, and notary’s offices

    ·     Media Service Support and Asset Management Fund

    ·     Credit cooperatives Integration Organization

    ·     collective management organisations

    ·     employee shareholder programme organisations

    ·     public water utility companies

    ·     church legal entities

    ·     investment funds, other funds

    ·     the stock exchange, organisations pursuing central depository or Central Counterparty (CCP) activities

    ·     private pension funds

    ·     voluntary pension funds

    ·     voluntary mutual health and mutual aid funds

    ·     public warehouses

    other organisations with legal personality as defined in separate laws

    reference: Act C of 2000 on accounting

    output indicator
    an indicator which expresses the direct outcome of the activities completed in the framework of the project (typically measuring quantifiable values, including in particular the number of publications, patents, prototypes, procedures or training courses)
    see also: indicators

    in relation to R&D projects, unless otherwise defined in the call for proposals: the typical public utility charges, phone charges (prepaid only) and laboratory or office rents related to the project

    own funds
    funds used by the beneficiary for the implementation of the project in excess of the amount of state aid
  • parent company
    an undertaking that has the capacity to exercise controlling influence over another undertaking (‘subsidiary company’, see there), either directly or through its subsidiary company, because

    it meets at least one of the following conditions:

    • based on its ownership percentage in the share capital, it solely controls the majority (in excess of 50 per cent) of the votes of the owners (shareholders), or
    • it solely controls the majority of votes based on agreement with the other owners (shareholders), or
    • in its capacity as an owner (shareholder) of the company, it is entitled to elect or dismiss the majority of executive employees or members of the supervisory board, or
    • based on a contract concluded with the owners (shareholders), or a provision of the deed of foundation, it exercises decisive direction and control, irrespective of its percentage in the share capital, voting ratio and the right to elect and dismiss executive employees

    reference: Act C of 2000 on accounting

    participant identification code (pic)
    A 9-digit number serving as a unique identifier for organisations (legal entities) participating in EU funding programmes.
    partner enterprises

    nterprises not classified as linked enterprises within the meaning of the relevant EU regulation and between which there is the following relationship: an enterprise (upstream enterprise) holds, either solely or jointly with one or more linked enterprises within the meaning of paragraph 3, 25 % or more of the capital or voting rights of another enterprise (downstream enterprise)

    patent cooperation treaty (pct)

    an international treaty which enables applicants to request a patent for the same invention in more than one designated member states by filing a single international patent application (Hungary has been member since 1980; in Hungary PCT application can be filed with the Hungarian Patent Office)


    pre-commercial procurement (pcp)
    A funding instrument that cofunds the preparation, implementation and follow-up of a single joint public procurement of research and development services as well as other related additional coordination and networking activities undertaken by grant beneficiaries referred to as the lead procurer and buyers group of the action.
    process innovation
    the inspection of activities and actions relating to RDI programmes and projects as well as their outcome for compliance with the law and with the contractual terms from a professional, legal and financial perspective (inspection of assessment, monitoring and conformity)
    product innovation

    the implementation of a new or significantly improved product or service which – in terms of its characteristics and function – incorporates the detailed technical specifications of development, components and materials, built-in software, the property of being user-friendly and other functional properties

    reference: The OSLO manual

    programme evaluation

    the implementation and impacts of programmes and projects with the aim of improving efficiency and providing information for present and future programming decisions

    reference: The Programming Period 2014–2020: Guidance document on monitoring and evaluation – Concepts and Recommendations

    activity directed at the implementation of a specific RDI task or process on the basis of a plan developed by the project participants
    an original model created for demonstration purposes, featuring the technical properties and performance of the new future product
    public funding
    state aid provided under the Act on Public Finance, including EU funds and foreign funding provided pursuant to international treaties in which the state is a party
    public-private partnership (ppp)
    A partnership where private sector partners, the European Union and, where appropriate, other partners, such as public sector bodies, commit to jointly support the development and implementation of a research and innovation programme or activities.
  • qualification of a research and development activity

    an administrative procedure conducted by the Hungarian Patent Office upon request with the aim of qualifying a project activity as research and development activity

  • rdi management system

    the system comprising all organisations responsible for establishing and operating the regulatory conditions and policy management system of research, development and innovation activities (RDI) and the related tasks

    rdi policy

    an area of policy-making. It aims to review and supervise (contain and control by taking into account the ethical norms and long-term real values-interests of society) a specific field and make the decision related to this field and implement and control the measures aimed at the implementation of these decisions

    research and development (r&d)
    complex activity involving basic research (discovery research), fundamental (targeted) research and experimental development
    research and knowledge-dissemination organisation

    an entity (such as universities or research institutes, technology transfer agencies, innovation intermediaries, research-oriented physical or virtual collaborative entities), irrespective of its legal status or way of financing, whose primary goal is to independently conduct fundamental research, industrial research or experimental development or to widely disseminate the results of such activities by way of teaching, publication or knowledge transfer. Where such entity also pursues economic activities the financing, the costs and the revenues of those economic activities must be accounted for separately. Undertakings that can exert a decisive influence upon such an entity, in the quality of, for example, shareholders or members, may not enjoy preferential access to the results generated by it

    researcher-developer[le1] [le1]nem találtam meg a kifejezést angolul, így tükörfordítást alkalmaztam.

    a (natural) person who deals with the creation or development of new knowledge, intellectual property, product, service, procedure, method, or system, or controls the implementation of such projects

    residual value

    the estimated value of an asset which can be realised at the end of its useful economic life (see there), as determined at the time when commissioned or placed into operation based on the information available. The residual value can be zero if its estimated value is insignificant.

    result (or outcome) indicator
    the indicator reflecting the immediate and direct impacts of the project providing information about changes directly affecting participants and users; result indicators can be financial (e.g. the reduction of production costs) and non-financial indicators (the number of trained persons, new products, services etc.)
  • seed money
    a form of financing provided to an early-stage business before the start-up stage for planning and concept development
    severely disadvantaged worker
    pursuant to the relevant EU regulation, any person who:
    • has not been in regular paid employment for at least 24 months; or
    • has not been in regular paid employment for at least 12 months and belongs to one of the categories mentioned under the definition of ‘disadvantaged worker’ (see there) in the relevant law (other than the first criterion)
    sheltered employment

    employment in an undertaking where at least 30% of workers are workers with disabilities

    small enterprise
    within the SME category, a small enterprise is a company whose
    • total staff headcount is less than 50, and
    • annual net sales revenue or balance-sheet total is no more than the HUF equivalent of EUR 10 million

    see also: micro, small and medium enterprises

    smart specialisation

    a place-based approach where strategic areas for intervention are identified in order to promote the optimal utilisation of development sources based both on the analysis of the strengths and potential of the economy with wide stakeholder involvement, and where the utilisation of sources are constantly adapted to the changing technological and market environment


    a business established for the commercial utilisation of the development results of a university or public non-profit research centre; in addition to the researchers of the university or the research institution, the spin-off usually has an external management which is responsible for the operation of the business centred around a new product or procedure
    staff headcount

    (term used in statistics) the number of persons who worked full-time within the enterprise in question or on its behalf during the entire reference year under consideration. The headcount corresponds to the number of annual work units (AWU). The work of persons who have not worked the full year, the work of those who have worked part-time, regardless of duration, and the work of seasonal workers are counted as fractions of AWU.

    reference: Commission Regulation (EU) No 651/2014

    a newly established, non-listed micro or small enterprise registered maximum three years before the date of the investment which has a fast-paced growth potential and aims to enter the international market
    state aid monitoring office (samo)

    the central coordinating body responsible for a competition-minded state aid control, supervised by the deputy secretary of state responsible for development policy of the Prime Minister’s Office

    subsidiary (company)

    the business company over which the parent company (see there) can exercise controlling influencethe business company over which the parent company (see there) can exercise controlling influence

  • tangible assets

    assets consisting of land, buildings and plant, machinery and equipmentassets consisting of land, buildings and plant, machinery and equipment

    targeted research
    see: experimental development
    technology transfer

    a business company not completely consolidated, in which the parent company (see there) or a consolidated subsidiary (see there) thereof has a substantial share (as defined in an Act) and exercises considerable influence (as defined in an Act) over the business and financial policy of the business company

    transparent aid
    aid (funding) the gross amount of which can be calculated in advance, without risk assessment
  • useful economic life

    the duration over which an economic entity (see there) is allowed to depreciate an asset prorated by a predetermined time or performance schedule (in view of inter alia physical wear, production capacity, feasible performance or other factors) and charged to its profit and loss account

    utilisation (of rdi results)

    utilisation as an enterprise for business purposes in the hope for economic benefit; and utilisation for community benefit improving the standard of living of citizens and the quality of public services, protecting natural and built environment, promoting the sustainable development of the country, and improving the defence capability and security of the country

    utilising enterprise
    a business company founded in the name and on behalf of the state or operated in part by the state for the purpose of the commercial utilisation of an intellectual property created in a budgetary research centre
  • venture capital
    a form of professional investment where the venture capital firm a business in its early (seed or start-up) stage in association with the owner of the business; the venture capital firm expects higher yield in return for the high risk
    see: innovation voucher
  • wages and salaries

    all payments related to the financial year as remuneration to employees, workers and members in accordance with legal regulations, including the amount withdrawn as consideration for the personal involvement of the owner (member) as a natural person, the sums paid for work - and accounted as such - to persons in any form of employment relationship for the financial year (including any premiums and bonuses and extra monthly salaries paid and accounted after the financial year) all constituents of which can be considered as wages according to statistical accounts, regardless of whether or not personal income tax is due on such payments, and whether or not they form a base for social security payments

    reference: Act C of 2000 on accounting

    worker with disabilities
    pursuant to the relevant law, any person who
    • is recognised as worker with disabilities under national law; or
    • has long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment(s) which, in interaction with various barriers, may hinder their full and effective